How does a hydraulic motor work?

There are different types of hydraulic motors, and each has a particular arrangement of internal moving parts. However, the function of a hydraulic motor is to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy.

Understanding the hydraulic motor

To cause the mechanical system, the hydraulic motor has two distinct characteristics: the driving torque and the speed. If the resisting torque is too high, the pressure rises. When the pressure reaches the set value of the pressure relief valve, the flow is returned to the tank. Its advantage is that it develops a high power for less space. The hydraulic motor is essential to ensure the rotation movements where the environment has risks of explosion and is in a zone of temperatures not compatible with the traditional solutions and where the mechanical solutions are complex or impossible. For example, it is used on machines for clearing and unloading powdered materials or on a drive for translation tracks on public works machines, industrial or marine winches and fans.

The different types of hydraulic motors

There are four types of hydraulic motors: vane, axial piston, radial piston and gear. The first type has a rotor equipped with blades, and under the pressure of the fluid, it causes the rotation of the shaft. The second one is equipped with pistons, and under the pressure, they move by rotating and by a ball-and-socket connection with the trunnion force the latter to rotate. For the third, the pistons turn on a cam allowing several strokes. For the continuation of the balancing and the flow, the number of pistons is odd. The piston pushes through its connecting rod on the eccentric cam of the motor shaft and forces it to rotate. The fourth type has 2 toothed wheels, one of which engages in the other, and the fluid passes between these wheels and causes them to rotate. There is also another type of hydraulic motor, which is the high displacement slow motor.

The operation of a hydraulic motor

The principle of operation of all types of hydraulic motors is the same, the difference lies in their dimensions and the pressure between the bearing and the inlet, and it occurs in the internal moving parts mechanically connected to the coupling shaft. The pressure difference causes these internal moving parts to move and drive the motor shaft and push it to move. Regardless of the difference, the hydraulic motor sends a rotating motion to a load. Specifically, the hydraulic energy obtained from the pressurized fluid is converted into mechanical energy, and the result is a rotational motion of the output shaft.

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